A logical fallacy is independent of the truth so a fallacy does not necessarily invalidate the argument's premises and conclusions. However arguments derived from logical fallacies often do lead to an incorrect conclusion due to faulty reasoning.
Ad hominemLatin: “To the Man”
It is an argument that attacks people holding a particular point of view rather than attacking the point of view itself.
Example: The case where an opponent starts insulting you in some manner rather than countering your argument.
OvergeneralizationIt is an argument which makes a statement so broad as to exceed the original point that was trying to be proved.
Often it involves taking a small sample and generalizing it to the whole group.
Non sequiturLatin: "It does not follow"
It is an argument which moves from a premise to a conclusion where no connection exists between the two.
Proof by authorityIt is an argument which is based on a person's authority, rather than on the merits of the authority's position.
Example: A argument is assumed correct because it comes from a person with a PHD.
Proof by assertionIt is an argument which simply states something as true without evidence or argument to support it.
Circular reasoningIt is an argument that tries to prove something by first asserting it and then trying to "prove" it.
Straw manIt is an argument where a person argues against a position similar to but weaker than their opponent’s real position.
Manufacturing facts from a theoryIt is an undemonstrated or unobserved idea that is stated as fact because it agrees with a particular theory.
Your theory does not work under my theory, so your theory must be wrongOften used by Evolutionists against Creationists it is a form of circular reasoning where the person tries to disprove a point of view by interpreting the facts through a different view.
Originated from discussions with evolutionists, where interpretation from Evolutionary theories are used as arguments against Creation Scienc, despite the fact that Creation Science interprets the same thing differently.
There are many more logical fallacies avoid them.