Monday, December 26, 2011
Saturday, December 24, 2011
I have posted some new articles to my web site regarding statistical thermo dynamics and entropy.
These are building up two the next two which will deal with the affect of applied energy on entropy, and the other is about what it says regarding the origin of life.
------ Charles Creager Jr.
Sunday, November 27, 2011
Saturday, November 26, 2011
Friday, November 25, 2011
Thursday, November 24, 2011
Wednesday, November 23, 2011
The article History It’s the Science of the Past
Tuesday, November 22, 2011
The scene that welcomed Mars Exploration Rover
Monday, November 21, 2011
What makes Mars amazing is thar contrary to the claims of form JPL is show a clearly catastrophic nature. The
Another smaller impact basin called Argyre seems to have been responsible for ripping open Valles Marineris. In fact the dominant distribution of craters on Mars suggests that they came largely from the same direction suggesting a short period nearly unidirectional bombardment rather than a longer period of occasional random impacts.
This shows that Martian geology has a largely catastrophic make up and not a uniformitarian one. Mars is a place
Sunday, November 20, 2011
Saturday, November 19, 2011
Friday, November 18, 2011
Thursday, November 17, 2011
Wednesday, November 16, 2011
Tuesday, November 15, 2011
Monday, November 14, 2011
Sunday, November 13, 2011
Saturday, November 12, 2011
Friday, November 11, 2011
Thursday, November 10, 2011
Wednesday, November 9, 2011
Tuesday, November 8, 2011
Monday, November 7, 2011
Thos page is a discussion of Science. It describes what Science is and is not. The page also links to other articles that go in to more detail on various aspects of Science. You will find it a useful resource to under stand the nature of Science.
Saturday, November 5, 2011
Geology also involves the interior of Earth which has several layers. The outer most of which is the solid crust which forms the surface on which we live. According to Plate Tectonics this crust is divided into segments called plates that move slowly over the mantel. Where they interact the results are Earth quakes and volcanoes
Uniformitarianism which was developed by James Hutton in 1785 is dominant paradigm of standard modern geology. It is the core of the evolutionary interpretation of the fossil record holding that all things continue as they were from the beginning of the world in fulfillment of II Peter 3:3-6.
Friday, November 4, 2011
"Man's ancestors mated with Neanderthals and other related hominids during human evolution, according to a new study. This is further proof that Neanderthals were human beings. However it doesn’t stop there."
This link shows that there was also hybridization between modern humans Homo erectus and Homo habilis sowing these types to be human beings as well. This answers the question as to weather not they were human or not. That answer is yes.
Thursday, November 3, 2011
Genesis Mission is a Creation Science with a Biblical perspective on science origins and the age of the Earth. It is a companion site to Genesis Science Mission The material here is largely a text and image format so as to present Creation Science in a manner that shows how well it fits with science as a whole. This site has been around for a while but has been revamped to a new format.
Wednesday, November 2, 2011
Tuesday, November 1, 2011
The most famous Bigfoot footage is the Patterson Film. This film was taken by Roger Patterson and Robert Gimlin in 1967 the approximate range to the Bigfoot is about 100 feet. There are those are claims that this film was a hoax bur even if it is; there many other sightings suggesting that Bigfoot could be a real animal. If this film is genuine then it supports the identification of Sasquatch as being a type of large ape. The Yeti of which has been sighted in the Himalayas of Asia. Also known as the abominable snow man; it leaves the same large prints as Sasquatch.
If they are real then what are they? Is there an animal known to science that could account for both groups of sightings? The answer is yes. They are known only by fragmented fossils found in as
Monday, October 31, 2011
A cosmology: Any theory or doctrine that describes the natural order of the universe.
The expansion of the Universe was discovered by Edwin Hubble discovered in 1929 by measuring the redshifts of distant galaxies. In 1998 it was discovered the expansion of the universe to be accelerating based on observations of type Ia supernovae.
Cosmic Background Radiation is the thermal black body spectrum that is nearly uniform in every direction, It represents a temperature of 2.725 K peaking in the microwave range a frequency of 160.2 GHz, with a wavelength of 1.9 mm. It was first observed in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in
The Big Bang Cosmology is the current Cosmology of the scientific establishment. The model starts with all mater and space squeezed into an infinitesimal dot called a singularity. This infinitesimal dot suddenly underwent an extremely energetic expansion commonly described as an explosion. Over time the heat of this expansion cooled eventually forming galaxies, stars, planets and eventually us. CBR is seen as residual heat from the Big Bang red shifted by the expansion of t he universe. The Big Bang is based on three main purely philosophical assumptions. First there is absolute naturalism with no intelligents or purpose being allowed in the process. The universe is considered to be unbounded with no edge that is no point beyond which there is no mater. Finally there is the cosmological principle which states that the universe looks the same from every place. The goal is to deal with the fact that we seem to be at the center of the universe by making every place look like the center
There Other Naturalistic Cosmologies such as the steady state cosmology which has no beginning or end to the universe but requires a continual source of new matter. There is a new Cosmology called the electric universe which depicts much of the phenomenon in universe as being electrical in nature. It is not yet fully developed.
Creationist Cosmology is based on three main purely philosophical assumptions. The first is God as the creative intelligents with purpose in the process. The universe viewed as bounded with an edge beyond which no mater is found. There is a center to the universe and the Earth is near it. Now this is not Geodetic because the universe does not rotate around the Earth Plugging these assumptions along with the observed expansion into relativity results in time dilation at the center where the Earth would have been producing a time line on Earth consistent with the Biblical account. CBR is seen as the light God created on day one red shifted by an expansion factor of about 3,300.
In conclusion Cosmology deals with the origin, structure, and relationships of the universe but is heavily dependent on philosophical assumptions since we only see the universe a one location that is the Earth. Evolutionary and Creationist Cosmologies are based on different assumptions producing different results for the same data.
Saturday, October 29, 2011
Biological evolution refers to the development of life. Chemical evolution refers to the origin of life. Planetary evolution refers to formation and development of planetary bodies. Stellar evolution refers to the formation, development and death of stars. Cosmic evolution refers to the beginning, development and possible end of the universe. Some times this by itself refers the entire Big Bang to man concept.
Friday, October 28, 2011
The beginnings of Chemistry go back to before known civilization with fire and metal work. According to the book of Genesis in the Bible metal work goes back to Tubal-cain who lived before the Flood. Modern Chemistry grew out of Alchemy and its search to turn metals like lead into gold and the so called elixir of life. Chemistry got much from Alchemy particularly its affinity research and experimentation. Once Chemistry broke from Alchemy it lead to an explosion of knowledge about the nature and structure of matter.
Chemistry begins with individual atoms of different elements such as hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. Atoms come together to form molecules such as water which is made of one oxygen atom getting together with two hydrogen atoms, methane which is made of one carbon atom getting together with four hydrogen atoms and carbon dioxide which is made of two oxygen atoms getting together with one carbon atom. These are all different substances with different properties.
The Periodic Table is a list of the chemical elements organized by recurring properties. The information about each element included varies but often includes element’s name, atomic number, symbol, and atomic weight. It is a vary use full took in Chemistry and one the most recognizable things associated with Chemistry.
There are two main fields of chemistry. Organic chemistry which is chemistry based on the element Carbon and may or may not involve life and inorganic chemistry which is chemistry not based on the element Carbon.
Thursday, October 27, 2011
Wednesday, October 26, 2011
Life: That which undergo metabolism, grows and reproduce.
Cell: The basic functional unit of life.
Organism: A contiguous living system.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the information storage device of living cells. Amazingly DNA is actually a digitally encoded information storage system.
Tuesday, October 25, 2011
Genesis 1:1, In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
Exodus 20:11, For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is…
Proverbs16:4, The LORD hath made all things for himself…
Hebrews 11:3, Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.
God made every thing from nothing and Quantum Mechanics shows this to be possible. Quantum Mechanics has what are called virtual particles that pop in and out of existence all the time. Wave-particle duality eliminates the idea of particles as solid ball like objects. Particles are exhibiting their wave nature have only a quasi existence where they are essentially every place at once. This alone suggest the Universe could be created out of nothing however the Big Bang is thought to have started with a quantum fluctuation from nothing. Now the Bible does not agree with the Big Bang theory but the point is that Quantum Mechanics supports a creation from nothing.
Colossians 1:17, And he is before all things, and by him all things consist.
This verse indicates that the universe is actively maintained by God. The indeterminacy of Quantum Mechanics is expected with intelligent control of the universe. General Intelligent Design is a perfect match to this concept. General Intelligent Design depicts quantum mechanical waves and their collapse as being the result of intelligent agents that determine the states resulting from the waves' collapse. In this case God would be the intelligent agent behind Quantum mechanical waves and their collapse
According to the Bible, Jesus Christ died on the cross to save us of our sin this salvation comes to the individual by acceptance of God’s offer as a free gift. He then rose from the dead on the third day. Following His resurrection Jesus was no longer restricted in space. He could now appear at will where he would and then disappear again. Even a locked room was not a problem since Jesus appeared to his disciples inside as locked room and then He then disappeared again.
Quantum Mechanics provides a possible scientific description of these events. A particles wave function can have a high probability at one point and a low or non in another. If the waves swap positions then the probabilities would be swapped and a particle which is in the first position will instantly jumps to the other. If a wave function starts with a high probability outside a locked room and a low or zero probability inside a locked room and that wave function changes so that it has a high probability inside a locked room and a low or zero probability outside a locked room then the object would suddenly appear inside the locked room.
If Jesus started out side a locked room His body would have wave function starts with a high probability outside the locked room and a low or zero probability inside the locked room. If He could change His wave function at will; not a stretch since He is God; to a high probability inside a locked room and a low or zero probability outside a locked room then He would suddenly appear inside the locked room. Changing His wave function back again He would then disappear again. This provides a possible scientific description of the post resurrection appearances and disappearances of Jesus. This is just a possible description of how He could do these things and in no way detracts from the miraculous nature of these events.
The existence of the soul and free will have come under attack by two philosophical concepts materialism and determinism. Materialism is the theory that the only reality that exists is physical matter and that everything can be explained in terms of matter physical phenomena including mind, thought, feeling, consciousness and will. Determinism is the doctrine that all events are fully determined by preceding events and conditions including human choices and actions. As a result of these doctrines freedom of choice is considered illusory. It needs to be realized that modern studied of neurology do allow any consideration of dualism is dealing with the mind / brain issue. Only theories that assume from the start that them mind is nothing but a by product of the brain are allowed consideration so it is no surprise that there conclusion leave not place fore the sole or free will.
Both materialism and determinism fit well classical mechanics but quantum mechanics refutes both ideas. Under quantum mechanics the future position of a particle can not be determined precisely which refutes determinism. Under quantum mechanics particles do not have an exact position and can be everywhere at once which refutes materialism. By refuting materialism and determinism quantum mechanics also refutes the naturalistic view of the mind that is the idea that the mind is nothing but the neuron activity of the brain opening the door to two alternatives dualism and quantum mind theory. Dualism where the mind and brain are totally separate and quantum mind theory which depicts the brain as a quantum computer. Both ideas allow for free will and the possibility of life after death.
Quantum mechanics allows for a new theory of dualism where the mind and brain are separate but connected by quantum entanglement. Quantum mechanics then becomes the means of mind / brain interactions. Based on this view mind is not limited to the brain thus can have free will and survive the death of the brain.
Quantum mind theory says that the mind results from quantum activity in brain. Basically the brain is seen as quantum computer where quantum indeterminately allows for the possibility of free will. Quantum nonlocality and entanglement allows for the possibility of the mind surviving the death of the brain.
The point is quantum mechanics provides for the possibility of a non materialistic mind. So is there evidence for a quantum mechanical aspect to the brain. Yes: in he synaptic activity in the brain. Calcium ions that trigger exocytosis needs to cross a barrier to the synaptic vesicle and the Calcium ions can not classically cross this barrier. As a result quantum tunneling is needed fore the Calcium ions to cross this barrier but the odds of this occurring are 1 in 10,000,000. The problem is that the functioning of the brain requires this quantum tunneling to occur on demand. The only way to get quantum tunneling on demand is for the mind to be able to control quantum events.
This means that the mind must be a result of more than synaptic activity. There needs to be an immaterial aspect to the mind that does not depend on the brain and that controls this quantum tunneling.
The point is Quantum mechanics allows for possibilities that classical mechanics does not. Consider what a being with total control of quantum phenomenon could do such a being would literally be capable of miracles. For over 200 years the idea of miracles has been criticized. However quantum mechanics shows how miracles could be possible. It is actually powerful support for the truth of the Bible.
Monday, October 24, 2011
Friday, October 21, 2011
There are four fundamental forces in Nature.
Gravity: The mutual attraction of all matter in the universe.
Electromagnetism: The mutual attraction and repulsion of charged partials.
Weak nuclear force: Regulates some types of nuclear decay including Bata decay.
Strong nuclear force: The Binding force of the atomic nucleus.
Forces causes mater to accelerate which is the main function of force by definition. It can overcome other forces such as friction gravity. The Strong nuclear force overcomes the mutual electromagnetic repulsion of protons that would blow every atomic nucleus apart. Force also holds things together. The electromagnetic force holds an object together including your body and the strong nuclear force holds atomic nuclei together. It can break things apart such as bombs or the force resulting from ramming two things together which can cause them to shatter and the peaces to fly apart.
All force causes acceleration regardless of its source. Force can also stop acceleration by resisting another force. Force holes thing together so force does indeed bind us together so it looks like Ben Kenobi got it partly right. Force makes our existence possible.
Thursday, October 20, 2011
The consistent histories interpretation works backwards from the result of an experiment and says that only a few possible histories are consistent with quantum mechanics and that Quantum mechanics simply predicts the probabilities of various alternative histories Schrödinger's cat is either alive or dead but not both Quantum mechanics just gives the probability of which it may be. This idea is not very popular because it still doesn't explain how a particle can go through two slits and interfere with itself and it is considered by some to be pretty much the same as
The Transactional interpretation sees quantum mechanical waves as stand waves in space time that constructively interfere were the particle is and destructively interfere every place else. These waves go both forward and backward in time. There is an "exact canceling" of waves so that is no "net" energy travels backwards in time. In the case of Schrödinger's cat tt is alive until the interference patterns line up in the sample to result in a decay event.
The Bohm interpretation or pilot-wave theory; depicts the quantum wave as guiding the particle. It is totally deterministic and good at explaining quantum phenomenon but requires a large number of hidden variables that can not be directly measured. The hidden variables have the side affect of rendering the interpretation untestable. Schrödinger's cat is alive until one the pilot-waves in the sample to causes a decay event.
The many-worlds interpretation sees the world as constantly splitting off into multiple universes in which every possible quantum event occurs. This fits perfectly with Evolution even the most improbable events occurred in some of these universes. Schrödinger's cat the universe keeps spitting off into each alternative in one the cat lives and in the other dies. They both happen in different quantum universes. There is no evidence for this interpretation since the alterative worlds would be forever out of reach. While quantum interference between adjacent worlds has been suggested, the possible evidence for it. Successful interpretation of single particle interference is not unique to the Many-worlds interpretation. So acceptance of this interpretation is purely philosophical and not scientific since it can not be tested.
With consciousness causes collapse consciousness causes collapses the quantum mechanical waves. It is usually associated with observation. There is some supporting evidence for this though the evidence is not exclusive to this interpretation. It is compatible with General Intelligent Design as well. This supporting evidence comes from the human brain. It turns out that synaptic activity in the brain requires quantum tunneling on demand. This shows some degree of control by the mind of quantum wave functions. Thus view fits well with both New Age / Hinduism, and the Christian world view. With New Age / Hinduism it provides a way for the mind to interact with the world beyond the five senses. With the Christian world view, since God is the ultimate mind it provides a model for his interaction with our world. Schrödinger's cat It would be both alive and dead until observed then the mind of the observer would collapse the wave function choosing one or the other. It is similar to the
General Intelligent Design also known views quantum mechanical waves and their collapse results from intelligent agents that determine the states resulting from the waves' collapse. These intelligent agents could be one or more intelligent beings or mechanisms preprogrammed by an intelligent being. This is supported by evidence of synaptic activity in the brain requiring quantum tunneling on demand showing some degree of intelligent control of quantum wave functions. This interpretation fits well with the Christian world view. The idea of an intelligence controlling the universe at its fundamental level fits well with God as described in the Bible. In the case of Schrödinger's cat, the cat is a live until the controlling intelligent agent decides to cause a decay event to takes place and then the cat dies.
The relationship between the mind and Quantum Mechanics is mentioned here because it provides evidence in support for the last two interpretations consciousness causes collapse and General Intelligent Design. It turns out that the synaptic barriers of dendrite brain cells are too thick for nerve signals to classically cross. This means that nerve signals need to use Quantum tunneling to cross the dendrite synaptic barrier. The odds of the nerve signal tunneling across the dendrite synaptic barrier are 1 chance in 10,000,000, Yet for our brains to function these tunneling events need to occur on demand this is evidence for the mind being able to control quantum phenomenon and against the naturalistic model of the mind as well.
In conclusion there are many ways of interpreting Quantum Mechanics. Acceptance or rejection of each often has more to do with philosophy than science. each fits better with some philosophical views than others and each interpretation differs in how it sees the fundamental nature of reality.
Wednesday, October 19, 2011
Tuesday, October 18, 2011
Planck Time is the amount of time it takes a photon to cross a Planck Length. It is the smallest measurement of time that has any meaning with in the laws of physics as we understand them today and Planck Time is about 5.391 24 × 10−44 s,
Quantization requires physical quantities like position, energy and momentum to have discrete values explaining much of what goes on in side atom and based on our current understanding of the laws of physics it suggest that time and space are quantized.
Monday, October 17, 2011
Mass: In the generally sense it is the amount of matter in an object. It is the term for two properties of matter that are equal in value: inertial mass gravitational mass.
Inertial Mass: The resistance of a body to acceleration when responding to force.
Gravitational Mass: Property of an object that determines the strength of its gravitational field and its reaction to gravity.
Liquid - Definite volume but no definite shape.
Gas - No definite volume or shape.
Normal Matter is composed of atoms. Atoms are a nucleus; made of protons and neutrons; with electrons around it. This form of matter in what we commonly experience. Matter makes up everything around us, everything we see, everything we touch and even our bodies.
Electrical energy is the energy associated with an electric current.
Chemical energy is the energy associated with the reactions involving molecules.
Nuclear energy is the energy associated with reactions involving atomic nuclei.
Kinetic energy is the energy associated with motion.
Potential energy is the energy of a system based on its position or condition. Stored energy.
Rest mass energy id tThe energy of an object that is not in motion. E= mc2
Saturday, October 15, 2011
A cording to
Special Relativity is generally thought to prevent classical information from being sent faster than light by this means. One reason is that the two particles need to be near each other to become entangled, or they need an intermediate particle, which has to be near one particle and then the other. However this would not prevent sending information faster than light in cases where the sender and receiver were originally near each other and then separated such as s apace ship that leaves Earth and uses such a means for communications.
Thursday, October 13, 2011
Wednesday, October 12, 2011
Broglie had shown earlier that particles have wave like propertied. Bohr then used this by showed that these waves could be bent into orbits like those expected for an electron with the result that electrons can only occupy those orbits with exactly a whole number of wavelengths. In these orbits the waves are add together with constructive interference. If an orbit has a fractional number of wavelengths the wave would destructively interfere and not persist so an electron can not occupy such an obit. The result is that that electrons jump from orbit to orbit emitting photons when going to a lower orbit and absorbing photons are when going to a higher orbit. It turns out that transitions between the possible electron orbits, matches the spectral lines that are actually observed in hydrogen. This was a major step in development quantum Mechanics.