Geology is the science that deals with the study of the Earth but. Space flight has expanded it to include the surfaces of all terrestrial planets. Basic Geology involves studying minerals and rocks. Minerals are the consonants of rocks that consist of natural crystalline solids that have a definite inorganic chemical composition. Rocks are made of minerals. There are three main types of rocks: Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary.
Geology also involves the interior of Earth which has several layers. The outer most of which is the solid crust which forms the surface on which we live. According to Plate Tectonics this crust is divided into segments called plates that move slowly over the mantel. Where they interact the results are Earth quakes and volcanoes
Uniformitarianism which was developed by James Hutton in 1785 is dominant paradigm of standard modern geology. It is the core of the evolutionary interpretation of the fossil record holding that all things continue as they were from the beginning of the world in fulfillment of II Peter 3:3-6.